The bar is considered the most common material for private construction. It is made from various types of wood. At the moment, glued material is particularly popular, the manufacturing technology of which is enclosed in an adhesive composition.
Angular and transverse joints of the bars.
The cross section of products for the construction of a house or bath is selected in accordance with climatic conditions and frequency of operation (year-round or seasonally) of the future building. Many beginner builders are interested in how to lay a beam.
In fact, the technology provides for various options for laying timber. The most famous are "in the paw" and "in the cup" (or "in the cloud"). These schemes are difficult to install, require special knowledge and experience working with log cabins. Laying timber in accordance with these methods is possible only by a professional master. But do not despair. Novice builders have something to learn, because it is quite possible to master alternative styling options.
A few styling tips
Orientation schemes of bars.
- Timber is chosen for winter felling, which was sawn from December to March.
- Drying is carried out for 1 month under cover with natural ventilation.
- The material is stored on a substrate with a gap of 20.0 cm from the ground, 10.0 cm between the rows, 5.0 cm between the bars.
- Cracks, dents or chips on the products should not be observed. The presence of knots is also not welcome, because, having dried, they will fall out and leave holes.
- The first symptom of rotting wood is a bluish tint.
- With a careful examination of the beam, it should not show signs of the presence of insect bugs. If there are small holes, it means that the tree is damaged, and it must be burned.
- Products must be smooth. Imbalances relative to the axis will significantly complicate the construction and may cause unpleasant consequences in the future during the operation of the building.
- Laying the first crown should be made of timber with oak or larch wood (section 20.0 x 20.0 cm).
- The walls are erected from pine species (cross section 15.0 x 15.0 cm).
Preparation of material for installation
The joining of the beam along the length with a straight overhead lock and an oblique overhead lock.
To correctly lay the beam, you should prepare it. Why do cuts, using templates prepared in advance. The timber can be laid in two ways:
- With the remainder: in the "Oryap", in half the tree, in the "Kurdyuk".
- Failureless method: in half a tree on an insertion spike, on a root spike, in a “paw”, on an insertion spike.
After performing all the cuts, each element is treated with an antiseptic composition. Bars of the lower crown cover on 4 sides, all the others on 3 sides. A highly reliable and tested by generations protective composition is the processing of engine oil.
Rules for laying timber
On the vapor barrier spread out around the entire perimeter of the foundation, rails (with a thickness of not more than 1.5 cm) are laid out, the length of the rails is made equal to the width of the foundation. Intersillar spaces are provided in 20.0-25.0 cm.
The first row is laid out from hardwood or oak timber with a cross section of 20.0 x 20.0 cm. It is not attached to the base with anything, since due to the gravity of the walls and the entire structure it will be thoroughly sealed to the foundation. After mounting the base crown, check its horizontal level, the entire geometry of the building depends on its evenness. The gaps between the base and the crowns are filled with foam.
The layout of the beam.
Next, lay a layer of insulation material. They may be:
- jute fiber - the most reliable and practical material laid directly between the timber;
- twisted tow - less expensive insulation;
- moss, which can be purchased almost for nothing.
Moss and tow are laid so that the edges of the material protrude from the bars of about 15 cm. After shrinkage of the structure with these ends, the caulking is completed. Caulking with moss and tow can be done at the end of the construction process.
Wall frame construction
For the second and next crowns, a bar of 15.0x15.0 cm is used. The bars are laid and fastened with wooden pins or metal pins.
The sequence of laying the 2nd and following crowns:
- a new bar is laid and customized;
- drill holes with an interval of 120.0-150.0 cm, which pass through the beam from above and to the middle (no more) of the beam from below;
- the upper beam is removed and a dowel (dowel) is driven into the hole of the lower one;
- stack heat insulating material;
- the timber is put in place, the holes are combined with the pins, hammered to shrink into place.
Openings for doors and windows are provided immediately or sawn in the future. Do not immediately recommend installing doors and frames, since deformation may appear on them when shrinking.
The two upper rows of bars do not fasten.
That's all the subtleties of how the laying technology for the beam is performed.
The main thing is to properly master the styling scheme and learn how to perfectly apply it.